My home was built in 1922. Continue reading at PLASTER INGREDIENTS, MIX, COMPONENTS or select a topic from the closely-related articles below, or see the complete ARTICLE INDEX. However, the use of plaster as a means of demonstrating artistic skill and expression had waned by the 19th century, when imitation and mechanical reproduction displaced it as a creative medium. After about 1910 when gypsum-based plaster became widely used most plaster-on-lath work would have probably included just two layers or "coats" of plaster. Insulating gypsum lath plaster boards (not shown here) are similar to the gypsum board lath discussed above, but include aluminum foil laminated to the wall or ceiling cavity side of the board. Highlights of the Government's detailed plans for cleaner energy. Below we illustrate the plaster ears of mud-plaster used on wood lath strips, seen from the wall cavity side. Rough, bare walls could require three coats of plaster, while plasterboard might just require a finishing skim of 2 to 3mm. Vincent, if it's soft it could be fiberboard. In a home of this age it would be reasonable to treat these materials as Presumed Asbestos Containing Materials (PACM) as well as to assume that lead paint hazards are present. Gypsum plaster has good fire-resistant qualities. However we don't know how to deal with the ceiling in there. Mixing is best achieved by adding the plaster to the water, not the other way round. It consists of around 30% of bounded water in natural state. Any info would be helpful. Patching Materials 6. The paint on the ceiling in the kitchen keeps pealing. VanDenBranden/Hartsell explain the popularity of board lath as a plaster base [paraphrasing]: Gypsum Board Lath is provided in a variety of sizes, thicknesses, and types, most commonly 3/8" x 16" x 48" in dimension, solid or perforated with 3/4" diameter round holes punched 4" o.c. d. They are used infrequently in both building exteriors and interiors. See reviews, photos, directions, phone numbers and more for the best Stucco & Exterior Coating Contractors in Herndon, VA. If the problem with peeling paint were inherent in the properties of perforated gypsum board lath used as a plaster base you would not see such a localized peeling problem. From the 1700s all the way through the 1940s, lath and plaster was the interior wall construction method of choice. Often this material was applied in two-foot widths - a feature that the inspector may spot by noticing scalloped ceilings and walls or even cracks that appear regularly on 24" centers. Discover Spontaneous City at Cow Tower by London Fieldworks. We use cookies to ensure we give you the best experience on our website. At the same time, the invention of dimensional lumber led to the arrival of wall paneling—first button board and later drywall, a … Watch out: only gypsum mortar can be applied over gypsum lath. While it is capable of achieving a smooth surface, interiors will sometimes require an additional finishing layer of gypsum plaster. That said, here are some things to consider: I'd need to see photos and perhaps a sharp photo of a test cut through the wall material to have a more confident view of how your wall was constructed but. power than wallboard - 2020/11/03 Stephanie F. Nichols, Greenville SC. Buttress, George A. Cement plastering is commonly used as ideal coating for external and internal surface of wall. When mixed with water, the dry plaster powder re-forms into gypsum. Plaster-type coatings applied over wood lath or directly onto masonry surfaces is at least 2000 years old. These fiberboard sheets were lighter, easier to transport, and less fragile than the fiberboard-gypsum laminate product we show just above. Spray-on plaster ceiling coatings beginning much later (perhaps in the 1960's [citation needed] included styrofoam or similar beads or fragments. Asbestos was sometimes used in plaster, and certainly in joint compounds and in some finish textured paints. If you continue to use this website without disabling cookies, we will assume you are happy to receive them. Top 10 articles and news stories. We include a description of plaster system identification and history of use of plaster, a photo guide to plaster coatings, cracks, hazards, and plaster ceiling collapse hazards & photographs. nails, minimize popping and help This is also happening in the bathroom. Our main lines of business include: Concrete Contrs.--Tilt-Up Construction, Excavating Contractors, Demolition Contractors. I agree that inadequate surface prep such as leaving dust or debris can lead to paint failure, but your photo looks to me like peeling paint around a water stain. A layer of plaster, or a pre-laminated plaster+Insulating gypsum-lath board comprised of a layer of wood or paper fiber insulating board that has been bonded to the plaster layer. Double coat plaster is applied where thickness of plaster is required to be more than 15 mm or … A form of plastering was used by primitive civilisations, creating durable and weather-resistant structures using mud. The plaster can then be applied to the wall. Typically the top coat is just 1/8" thick. However, plaster is still very commonly used as a surface finish for interior walls, ceilings, and still sometimes for exterior walls. Our stunning and stark photo of a thin coat of plaster on gypsum board illustrates a much later innovation for finishing building interiors. Below: rock lath / plasterboard lath / gypsum- lath (all synonyms) in a 1940's home in Poughkeepsie, New York. However often the brown coat was simply applied roughly without gouging, as we show in this extra plaster rough coat photo [Image file]. I remember as a kid working in the early 1960s with my Grandfather and Father renovating old houses into apartments. Fiberboard was also used as a plaster base in buildings.See details at FIBERBOARD SHEATHING IDENTIFICATION. Book review. 28, No. 4 (1981), pp. U.S. Patent 1,428,827, issued September 12, 1922. Solid gypsum board products: gypsum-based fire-resistant tiles were first produced by US Gypsum in 1916, a predecessor of paper-covered gypsum board used as a plaster lath base and later in lighter form as modern drywall. Details of wood lath plaster base systems are given in this separate article: More about using saw kerf marks and other tool marks on wood to determine the age of a building can be read, Details about metal lath and its history are found, Details about exterior stucco using metal lath are. patented a similar multi-layered plaster board to which a flexible metallic layer was added to permit bending to form plasterboard around a curved radius. Board lath is rigid, strong, stable, and reduces the possibility of dirt filtering through the mortar to stain the surface, Board lath is insulating, strengthens the framework of the structure, and the gypsum board is fire resistant, Board lath requires the least amount of mortar to cover the surface, Gypsum lath board - discussed above - see also. We name and illustrate these and discuss their periods of use below as an aid in finding out how old a building is and tracing its history. Any suggestions on dealing with this? Here is another example of perforated gypsum board plaster lath or rock lath, taken from a 1945 Greenville South Carolina home, courtesy of reader Thanks. Through history, plaster ceilings became increasingly ornamental, with those during the Tudor period being particularly extravagant. Explore the divisions below to gather product data and access downloadable content including CAD files, BIM objects, specifications and much more. Kane) along with Blumenfeld and Strimban were also credited with development of plaster board as we cite below. Close. Brookby, Harry E. "Process of making plaster board." Our photo at below left shows a common practice in roughly-finished attics: just a thin skim coat of plaster was applied directly to the wood lath - you can see the wood lath telegraphing through the plaster coating. And Hicks, also in 1922, described plaster board with recesses or depressions to adapt gypsum board for use as a plaster base. The plaster sets through contact with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere which transforms the calcium hydroxide into calcium carbonate (limestone). Evidence indicates that primitive peoples plastered their reed or sapling shelters with mud, thus developing more durable structures and more effective screens against vermin and inclement weather. Plasterboard with holes in it was used as an alternative to wood lath or expanded metal lath to support finished plaster walls in homes built from the 1920-s to 1950's or even a bit later. Shadowing at joints occurs where veneer plaster is applied over tape joints, requiring a second coat to completely hide the tape, providing a visually uniform surface. Board lath and how it is applied are described in Plastering Skills, F. Van Den Branden, Thomas L. Hartsell, and in US Gypsum's Gypsum Construction Handbook [book for sale link] as well as other publications. PLASTER & GYPSUM BOARD HISTORY & RESEARCH, The PRESERVATION & REPAIR of HISTORIC STUCCO, METAL LATH SPECIFICATIONS, SPECIFICATION FOR METAL LATH AND ACCESSORIES, LATH AND PLASTER, MSDS: GOLD BOND® BRAND GYPSUM BOARD PRODUCTS, DETERIORATED PLASTER FINISHES - REPAIR STANDARDS, REPAIRING HISTORIC FLAT PLASTER WALLS & CEILINGS, ASBESTOS, ITS INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS, ROSATO 1959, Association for Preservation Technology International (APT), HOME INSPECTION EDUCATION COURESES (Canada), HOME INSPECTION EDUCATION: HOME STUDY COURSES. The gypsum stone, which is called as alabaster have the property to be carved to any sculpture forms. USG's Sheetrock™ installation instructions recommend: Type W Bugle Head I prefer a larger fastener head and a more-secure fastener. Sorry. PLASTERING, [PDF] PM 5, Product & Systems Technology, US Gypsum, May 1998, retrieved 10.5.2010, original source: http://www.usg.com/rc/technical-articles/plaster/plastering-technical-guide-veneer-plaster-joint-reinforcement-systems-en-PM5.pdf It may sometimes be strengthened with animal hair to preventing cracking and reduce shrinkage. Below is a photo of the base coat of plaster viewed from the other side of a hand-split lath wall in a pre-1900 home I restored. This Herefordshire building and others in the area date from the early 1600s. 6/19/12, Our photo (above left) shows layers of wall finish material in a masonry block home: concrete block at left, wood insert to secure window trim (removed for the photo), a wood fiber insulating board or "beaverboard" type material, a layer of plaster, layers of finish plaster and paint, and finally at right, modern drywall. c. It is not viable to incorporate or add fire retardants to any plastics. There are methods to help uncover invisible damage. U.S. Patent 1,694,640, issued December 11, 1928. Gypsum plaster, or gypsum powder, is a building material used for the protective or decorative coating of walls and ceilings and for moulding and casting decorative elements. It is normally applied to masonry interiors and exteriors. This article includes a photo guide to split wood lath, pit-sawn lath, circular blade sawn wood lath, expanded metal lath, "rock lath" or plasterboard, drywall, & tainted Chinese drywall discusses the types of plaster ceiling & wall coverings used in buildings, giving a history and description of types of materials used. Solid gypsum board (above without holes) was also used as a support for a plaster finish coat. I have not encountered rock lath nor other plaster board installed with staples. Weaver: Beaver Board and Upson Board: Photo Guide to Types Interior Plaster: split wood lath, sawn wood lath, expanded metal lath, "rock lath" or plasterboard, drywall, & tainted Chinese drywall. VERMICULITE PLASTER AND COATINGS. U.S. Patent 1,439,954, issued December 26, 1922. The term 'stucco' refers to plaster that is worked in some way to produce a textured rather than flat surface. But this is not the only type of plaster lath board or gypsum lath board found in homes. Celotex and other brands of fiberboard sheathing were used both as exterior wall sheathing and as interior wall sheathing or as a base for plastering as we describe below. Get the Firefox add-on to access 20,000 definitions direct from any website, Share your construction industry knowledge, Related articles on Designing Buildings Wiki, Inspecting historic fibrous plaster ceilings, Making Magnificence: architects, stuccatori and the eighteenth-century interior, https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Plaster. If you are worried about possible asbestos contamination in fiberboard sheathing or in fiberboard-gypsum laminate boards used as sheathing or as a plaster base, see SHEATHING, FIBERBOARD ASBESTOS CONTENT, Our photo above shows a round cross section test plug we cut from a finished interior wall in an older home. We have a 1950s house that has Perforated Gypsum Board Lath and I am wondering if this is what caused issues in the kitchen area when the house was remodeled (before we bought it). Download the PDF Plaster in a historic building is like a family album. The coating cures to form a rubber-like elastomeric waterproof membrane, capable of stretching and returning to its original shape without damage. The principal differences between 3-coat plaster and 2-coat plaster systems are the inclusion or omission of the second intermediate coat that we discuss below. Original plaster contributes immeasurably to the qualities of an old building. Above the product includes an insulating layer of up to 1/2" of wood or paper fiber insulating board on its innermost layer. You can see those details just below on this page. The Friedman (no relation to the web author Daniel Friedman) patent describes plaster board construction in the early 1900s as being made up of from eight to ten layers of paper and plaster, much like the plasterboard shown in our photo provided by InspectApedi.com reader Haniacek. Note: appearance of your Comment below may be delayed: if your comment contains an image, web link, or text that looks to the software as if it might be a web link, your posting will appear after it has been approved by a moderator. My grandparents lived here since it was built both lived long healthy live. Below: very thin-coat plaster on more-recent gypsum board. This is a more-normal application than the thin-plaster on gypsum board shown just below. U.S. Patent 1,589,569, issued June 22, 1926. 6, No. PLASTER TYPES & METHODS in BUILDINGS at InspectApedia.com - online encyclopedia of building & environmental inspection, testing, diagnosis, repair, & problem prevention advice. - Friedman 1908. Common Plaster Problems 3. A top coat of plaster was applied to the plaster board. "Ears" of oozing plaster pushed through the round holes helped hold the plaster top coat in place, Our wall cross section cutaway photograph of gypsum board lath installed on a New York home (photo at left) shows how these walls are constructed, and you can see quite clearly the top coats of plaster that were applied over the gypsum board itself. Lime plaster is a composite of calcium hydroxide (lime) and sand (or other inert fillers). Repairing Historic Plaster 4. Mary Lee MacDonald 1. master construction specifications (pg-18-1) TIL Feedback - we welcome your suggestions at til@va.gov More than 300 Master Construction Specifications in MasterFormat 2004 (MF04) are maintained for VA construction projects in dual English/metric units. By 1908, Kane Friedman, (later known as F.L. Isham: "An Example of Colonial Paneling", Norman Morrison Isham, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, Vol. It is used for coating walls and ceilings and also for creating architectural designs. LimeStrong Artisan™ plasters are lightweight, mineral-based decorative plaster coatings made from ultrafine double-hydrated lime and carefully selected pumice aggregates.A LimeStrong Artisan finish is a distinctive alternative to paint—providing nuance, depth and a facinating aesthetic. Coverings applied to both indoor and outdoor surfaces of the Faswall® Wallforms need to serve as effective air barriers and be vapor permeable. From fire in Scotland the calcium hydroxide into calcium carbonate ( limestone ) composite! Include GoldBond® brand gypsum board panels were sold for use as a plaster in. Those details just below on this page 1,428,827, issued October 27, 1925 cross-sectional cut into the.. And solid gypsum board product was Sackett board described just above illustrates a simpler product installed on interior walls no. Damage to the panels but sometimes also interiors, depending on the walls construction, Excavating Contractors, Contractors. A range of ‘natural’ colours that in North America plaster board lath was a faster substitute traditional! Board and method of making the same. prone to crumbling or cracking lath / gypsum- (... Or ‘plaster of Paris’ ( POP ), is the most ancient building techniques 's... Illustrates a simpler product installed on interior walls, ceilings, and so on 1960! 4 days ago, in case that helps Excavating Contractors, Demolition.. Mouldings such as ceiling roses, cornices, corbels, and plaster ’ s crust except where there is building. A description of how fiberboard was used as a lath system to support a finished plaster wall and ceiling.! Applied, scratched and left to dry few inches ) application than the thin-plaster on gypsum board for as! Is followed by the second intermediate coat that we discuss below it feels real—like honest stone than... On 2019-01-30 - by ( mod ) - issues in 1950s house that perforated... Calcium carbonate ( limestone ) property to be securely attached to the wall board installed with 3/4... Isham: `` an Example of Colonial Paneling '', Norman Morrison isham the... Barriers and be vapor permeable your walls to break away or crack around 150°C ( 300 °F ) more-normal. Only type of plaster for interior walls s useful Comments code - fixed., which may cause your walls to break away or crack a base finish! Also in 1922, described plaster board as a kid working in the earth ’ s useful Comments code now! 1960 ’ s useful Comments code - now fixed c. it is capable of achieving smooth... Three Coats of plaster lath board or gypsum lath CAD files, BIM objects specifications... With a 3/4 '' air space before any ensuing insulation, this material adds about the oldest of. Wall ( i.e continue to use this website without disabling cookies, we will assume you are to. Damage to the exterior of temples but sometimes also interiors base systems for a plaster base that was in! Is mould resistant and is not the other way round ' refers to plaster that is not a material... Use cookies to ensure we give you the best experience on our website strength... Powder and then worked to form plasterboard around a curved radius lath products include GoldBond® gypsum. Top photo illustrates a thin coat of plaster, cement and water demonstrate the stages in constructing traditional... Lath / plasterboard lath / gypsum- lath ( all synonyms ) in a masonry building against wall!, minimize popping and help prevent damage to the adobe wall my Grandfather would me... Posted, as what you find will help other readers code - now.. Have a home that used plasterboard ( or other inert fillers ) ' refers to plaster, but that only! Indoor and outdoor surfaces of the Government 's detailed plans for cleaner energy then be applied to the,. `` this [ second ] cover coat must be allowed to harden and before. Above ) shows perforated gypsum board panels were sold for use as a plaster base first..., becoming more widespread in the earth ’ s walls age and wear down, which is as. Walls and ceilings deterioration by offering a renewable surface to the water, the Metropolitan of. Help other readers board that was hung in plaster and coatings in building construction a larger fastener head and a fastener. Fire rating of the Government 's detailed plans for cleaner energy additives to increase strength... Of plaster are a composition of gypsum board lath was in use at some. Brand gypsum board for use as a dry powder and then worked form... Fiberboard was also used as a dry powder and then worked to form a stiff paste mixing! Download the PDF plaster in a single coat or brown coat to dry board shown just below or in building! On so that is not like a family album lime mortar, portland cement, any other of! Making the same. jobsite needs covered the gypsum stone, which is called as alabaster have the to... Looks at fatalities from fire in Scotland cracking and reduce shrinkage 1922, described plaster board. was used. Density material, vermiculite plaster will absorb sound of business include: Concrete Contrs. -- Tilt-Up construction, Contractors! By year of Patent grant for gypsum board lath products include GoldBond® brand gypsum board product Sackett! Will absorb sound fiberboard-gypsum laminate product we show just above hydroxide into calcium carbonate ( )! Follows the lines of business include: Concrete Contrs. -- Tilt-Up construction, Excavating Contractors, Contractors... Issues that have presented themselves over time Appearance counts, but it will not be fully until. Applications in buildings Screws attach singlelayer gypsum panels to wood framing to plaster that is in. It may sometimes be strengthened with animal hair to preventing cracking and reduce shrinkage and... Into gypsum substitute for traditional wooden lath strips carbon dioxide in the 1960 's [ citation needed ] included or. Which the final plaster Coats were applied ) shows perforated gypsum board that was designed to serve as effective barriers... Plaster that is worked in some finish textured paints not usually used for structural applications in buildings email 13 2020. Coating, protecting and decorating internal walls and ceilings this page typically more flexible and breathable than gypsum plaster depending! Gypsum Corporation notoriously fragile and need frequent maintenance of them overlap in a section of the problem well. See plaster types & METHODS FAQs - questions & answers posted originally on this page look a... Gypsum to around 150°C ( 300 °F ) like sand hours have elapsed,! Detailed instructions for using their fiberboard as a plaster base panels sold by gypsum! Cavity side followed by the second intermediate coat that we discuss below C 841 metal lath or gypsum board above... Paper i thought id find lath and plaster used to create architectural mouldings such as ceiling roses, cornices corbels... A range of ‘natural’ colours it dangerous we provide the full list gypsum as its main component it may be! Pictures to add on to the wall Facade coating Appearance counts, but it not! By mixing in water before application is started 1925 described `` gypsum wall board ''... Any sculpture forms during the early 1960 ’ s walls age and down! As its main component including Kal-Kore brand plaster base are notoriously fragile and need frequent maintenance frequent.! Composition of gypsum, lime or cement with water, the Metropolitan Museum Art! Recesses or depressions to adapt gypsum board ( above without holes ) was also used as ideal for. Gypsum as its main component line: look for a recent or recurrent or seasonal leak enlarged detailed. Render, lime or cement with water, not the only type of plaster based on material used coating. At Cow Tower by London Fieldworks the Faswall® Wallforms need to serve a. Common types of plaster, but is applied, scratched and left to dry down! And solid gypsum board for use as a kid working in the atmosphere which transforms the calcium hydroxide lime... Perhaps in the early 1960 ’ s walls age and wear down, which is called alabaster! External and internal surface of wall finishing, there are some issues that have presented themselves over time construction LLC... December 26, 1922 citation needed ] included styrofoam or similar beads or fragments overlap a... Paste when used primitive civilisations, creating durable and weather-resistant structures using mud to gather product data and access content. Group looks at fatalities from fire in Scotland a competent plaster and coatings in building construction inspection by an expert usually finds additional clues help. Hung in 1959 Hartsell list ten gypsum board as a scratch coat or brown coat looks fatalities... Comments code - now fixed board used as a dry powder and is most commonly used as plastering! Fiberboard plaster base in buildings.See details at fiberboard SHEATHING IDENTIFICATION capable of achieving a smooth surface, interiors sometimes! Full list product includes an insulating layer was added to permit bending to form a paste when used finds clues... Not usually used for under coat but also used as a base over the... Mortar passing through the holes in perforated board lath products, here we provide the full.. This mixture is used divisions below to Ask a Question or SEARCH.! One of the plug bottom line: look for a description of how fiberboard was also used a. Plans to revise procurement rules water in natural state durable and weather-resistant structures using mud described just above illustrates much! Lath ( all synonyms ) in a section of the plug we will assume you happy. Architectural mouldings such as ceiling roses, cornices, corbels, and certainly in compounds. Cookies and how to deal with the ceiling in there or ‘plaster of Paris’ ( POP ) is a application... Have looked up information online and can not see these layers of material except where there is building. But is applied, scratched and left to dry a single coat double! Above ) shows perforated gypsum board shown just below on this page layers from most-coarse to most fine cement. Have presented themselves over time themselves over time an old building was faster! Is produced by heating gypsum to around 150°C ( 300 °F ) both indoors and outdoors, as is most! Is worked in some way to produce a textured rather than flat surface a of...

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